Math Anxiety -- Literature Assessment
This paper is targeted on the adult who is experiencing math stress, with irregular references regarding math stress throughout the lifespan. It will cover definitions and characterizations of math anxiety, its frequency, proposed causes, treatment (both self-help and instructional), results and guidelines for further exploration.
Definitions of Math Anxiety
There are many definitions of mathematics anxiety. In accordance to Fiore (1999), Tobias and Weissbrod (1980) define math stress as " the stress, helplessness, paralysis, and mental disorganization that arises amongst some people if they are required to resolve a numerical problemвЂќ, web page 403. It really is both a great emotional and cognitive hate of mathematics. While some anxiousness can be encouraging or even interesting, too much anxiety can cause " downshiftingвЂќ in which " the brain's usual processing mechanisms begin to transform by narrowing perceptions, inhibiting temporary memory and behaving much more primal reactionsвЂќ (McKee 2002, page 2). Pries & Biggs (2001) describe a cycle of math prevention: In phase one, the individual experiences unfavorable reactions to math scenarios. These may result from previous negative experience with mathematics, and result in a second stage in which a person avoids math situations. This kind of avoidance contributes to phase three, poor math preparation, which will brings those to phase four, poor mathematics performance. This kind of generates even more negative activities with mathematics and brings us back to period one. This cycle can repeat so frequently that the math anxious person becomes certain they cannot do math and the cycle is definitely rarely broken. Arem (2003) equates a whole lot of mathematics anxiety with math test anxiety, which will she says is three-fold: Poor test preparing, poor test-taking strategies and psychological stresses. She says is actually exacerbated by simply poor health patterns, especially diet and rest.
There are some even more biological research done upon math anxiousness. In a research by Hopko et 's (1999) it had been found that " math-anxious individuals possess a deficient inhibition system whereby doing work memory assets are used by task-irrelevant distracters. A result of this insufficiency was that precise memory functionality was poorer for high-anxious individualsвЂќ. In addition they found simply no relationship among competence and math stress. In a identical study, Ashcraft and Kirk (2001) it absolutely was found that it isn't essential to use regular arithmetic and math problems to bring about the math-anxiety reaction, that only needs to be a counting-like process (like counting through letters inside the alphabet). Their very own explanation of math stress is " an on-line reduction in the available working-memory capacity of high-math-anxiety individuals when their anxiety is definitely aroused. вЂќ The anxiousness reaction consists of attention to or preoccupation with intrusive thoughts or get worried. According to the research workers, " learners who carry out poorly on an exam declare that they become confused, are unable to concentrate on the task at hand, or maintain thinking about how poor they may be at math. вЂќ This is consistent with their main result, " Mathematics anxiety interferes with the on-going, task-relevant actions of doing work memory, reducing performance and degrading it is accuracyвЂќ page 236.
Prevalence of Math Anxiety
In 1992, analysts at the University or college of California circulated a questionnaire to 9, 093 students and found that twenty-five. 9% a new moderate to high require of help with math stress (Jones 2001). According to Burns (1998) 2/3 of Americans fear and loathe mathematics (see Furner page 68). According to Zaslavsky (1994), people of all events and monetary backgrounds dread math, yet women and minorities are the majority of hindered by it. She reported research which will points out that around the seventh grade young ladies begin to hesitation their ability to do mathematics. Since self assurance and mathematics performance are extremely closely related, it performs a major function in girls' choices to carry on math in high school.
Preis & Biggs (2001) cite exploration that locates that women, specifically...
Bibliography: Arem, Cynthia (2003). Conquering Math Anxiety, Second Edition, Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning, California.
Ashcraft, Mark L.; Kirk, At the P. (2001). The Associations Among Operating Memory, Mathematics Anxiety and satisfaction, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol. 130(2), 224-237.
Ashcraft, Draw H. (2002), Math Anxiousness: Personal, Educational, and Intellectual Consequences, Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol 11 (5), October, 181-185.
Baloglou, Mustafa (1999) A Comparison of Math concepts Anxiety and Statistics Anxiety in Relation to Standard Anxiety, Information Analyses, JOSHUA ED436 703, 31 webpages, December 1999.
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Dinkheller, Ann Louise(1993). Graphing Calculators in PreCalculus: Gender, Anxiety, and Achievement (Computer Anxiety, Mathematics Anxiety), Ed. D. Texte, University of Cincinnati; 0045.
Dodd, Bea Wescott (1999). Insights from a Mathematics Phobic, Math Teacher, Volume 85(4), 296-299.
Fiore, Greg (1999). Math Abused Learners: Are We Prepared to Train Them?, Math Teacher, Volume 92(5), 403-406.
Furner, Joseph M.; Duffy, Mary Lou (2002). Fairness for All Learners in the Fresh Millennium: Circumventing Math Anxiety, Intervention at school and Clinic, Vol. 38(2), 67-74, November.
Jackson, Jean D.; Leffingwell, R. Jon (1999). The Role of Instructors in Creating Mathematics Anxiety in Students by Kindergarten through College, Mathematics Teacher, Volume 92(7), 583-586, Oct. 99.
Jones, W. George (2001). Applying Mindset to the Instructing of Basic Math: A Case Study, Inquiry, Vol 6(2), 60-65, Show up.
Kovarik, Tomas (1999). Assessing the Effects of Traditional and Converted Instructional Strategies on Math Anxiety and Learning for a Community College, Ed M. Dissertation, Fuzy, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey вЂ“ New Brunswick; 0190.
" Learning Variations IndexвЂќ (2002), a check to determine the learning design, by Richard M. Felder and Barbara A. Soloman of North Carolina State University, available on the Web in http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/ILSpage.html
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McKee, Deborah K. (2002). Reducing Mathematics Anxiety Through Teaching and Learning Models, Master of Education Thesis, Weber State University, The fall of 6, 2002.
Parker, Lin Latralle Blackston (1997). Beating Math Panic: Formerly Math-Anxious Adults Talk about their Alternatives (Adult Development), Ed. D. Dissertation, Fuzy, University of Georgia; 0077.
Preis, Christy; Biggs, Bobbie T. (2001) Can Trainers Help Students Overcome Mathematics Anxiety? ATEA Journal, Volume 28(4), 6-10, Apr/May.
Tobias, Sheila (1995). Overcoming Mathematics Anxiety, Modified and Extended, W. W. Norton & Company, New York.
Tobias, Sheila (1987). Be successful with Math, Every Present student's Guide to Overcoming Math Stress, The College Table, New York.
School of California Counseling Center Web Page, utilized (July twenty-two, 2003),
Zaslavsky, Claudia (1994). Fear of Math, Getting Over It and Get On with Your Life, Rutgers School Press, Fresh Brunswick, Nj.
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